# Basic Physics Concepts that Everybody Must Know:

These are the Basic Concepts of Physics that Everybody Must Know. Studentsheart.com

## Physics concepts

Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Element: Any substance that can not be broken down into two or more simpler substances.

Example:carbon, oxygen.

Atom: The smallest particle of matter that retains the physical characteristics of an element.

Nucleus: The central core of atom, contains proton and neutron.

Electrons: Particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom.

• Every electron has both an electric charge(negative) and a magnetic field

Atomic Number: Equal to the number of protons.
Shells: Electron orbital paths that circle the nucleus, each contains 2𝑛2 electrons.
Valance Shell: The outermost orbital path for a given atom,it is complete if there are 8 electrons.

Charge: An electrical force that causes two particles to be attracted to, or repelled from, each other.
Protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge.
Positive Ion: An atom with a net positive charge, after losing electron.
Free Electron: One that is not bound to an atom and is free to drift from one atom to another.
Current: The directed flow of charge through a conductor.
Voltage: A force that generates the flow of electrons (current).
Resistance: The opposition to current provided by a material, component or circuit.

The intensity of current , the amount of charge flowing per second
𝐼 (𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑒) =Q/t= coulomb/second.
Coulomb is the total charge on 6.25𝑥1018 electrons.

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