In this article, we will learn about Arduino Microcontroller, Different types of Arduino, Arduino Uno board Configuration,  How to Install Arduino IDE and How to Code in Arduino IDE for Building and Learning Basic projects. 

Welcome to my Blog Studentsheart.comIn this blog, we will learn about Arduino Microcontroller and its Programming and How you can Build Project. So Before starting that let me ask you have you ever build projects? Do you have the interest to make things? if yes, Then you are at the right place, my friend. Today We will learn some interesting things about Arduino? and How to code in Arduino? and How to Make just let’s get started 🙂

What is Arduino?

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An Arduino is a Micro-Controller its just like a human brain it processes information and then it performs some Arithmetic and Logical Operations on that information.


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  • An Arduino is an open Source Platform it means you can modify and build your own Arduino at home the source code is freely available you can make any modification into Arduino Basically, Arduino is built for Electronics Projects.It is consist of two things one is Hardware and another one is Software IDE (Integrated Development Environment) which runs on your computer. you can write programs of Arduino using Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment).

Why use Arduino?

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Thanks to its simple and easy user interface, Arduino has been used in thousands of different projects and applications every day. The Arduino software is easy-to-use, flexible for beginners. It operates on Windows, Linux, and MAC. Researchers, Students, and Teachers use it to build low-cost projects and instruments, Arduino Microcontroller is a basic key tool to learn new things. Anyone – children, professionals, programmers, artists – can start project according to their use.

Who Can Use Arduino Microcontroller?

  • It was built for designers, artists, programmers, newbies, and anyone interested in learning and making the new things. Arduino is awesome it can interact with buttons, LEDs, motors, sensors, GPS modules, cameras, Wifi, Bluetooth and internet and even your smart-phone.

Advantages of Choosing Arduino:

  • Inexpensive
  • Cross-platform
  • Simple, clear programming environment
  • Open source and extensible software
  • Open source and extensible hardware

Got Clear with Basics?

Types of Arduino Available in Market:

Types of Arduino Boards

Types of Arduino Boards


Detail About Pins of Arduino Uno Board:

Arduino Uno Board Specifications

Arduino Uno Board Specifications

There are various Arduino boards available in the market but the most usable and valuable is Arduino Uno. As we Known Arduino Uno is Micro-Controller and it is able to perform the number of tasks. we can use Arduino Uno to perform the various task by using the pins of Uno Board. There are various pins available in the Arduino Uno and each pin have a special function. And in this portion, we will cover them one by one.

Basic Pins of Arduino Uno:

In order to connect your Arduino Uno with your project, you will use these pins. These pins are usually connected with your project or circuit through jumper wires or any copper wire.

There is more than one basic pin and in this section, we will cover all of the basic pins that are essential when you are working on Arduino or Arduino based Projects.

  • GND: Pin number 3: This pin provides ground to the Arduino board. There are more than one GND pins on the Arduino Uno, you can use any of them in order to provide ground to the circuit.
  • 5V & 3.3V: Pin number 4 and 5 respectively: Pin number 4 which is 5V pin, it is used to supplies 5 volts of power, whereas the pin number 5 provides 3.3V because in some cases 5v is quite large to operate for circuit, in the scenario we usually use 3.3v otherwise most of the time we prefer 5 volts.
  • Analog Pins: Pin from A0-A5 these all pins are called as analog pins: These are the group of pins in Arduino Uno board, they are very useful pins. These pins are used to read the analog voltages from any analog sensor like (like a temperature sensor, pressure sensor, ultrasonic sensor, IR sensor) and then they convert those analog values into a digital value that we can read.
  • Digital: Pin from 0-13 these all pins are called as Digital pins. Just like Analog pins, these are also a group of pins. These pins also play the vital role in Arduino performance. These pins are used to measure digital values from the digital sensor like ( Push Button, GSM Module, Bluetooth Module, IR sensor).
  • PWM: Pin number 8: If you see Arduino Uno board pins you will observe that some of the digital pins have tilde (~) sign. For example Digital pin (3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 on the UNO Board) these pins are dual purpose. These are simple digital pins and at the same time, they can be used to modulate the width of a pulse. In simple they can be used for PMW.
  • AREF: Pin number 9: This pin is not that much useful in most of the Arduino projects. But this is also important pin to consider, the AREF Stands for Analog Reference. It is sometimes used to set an external reference voltage (between 0 and 5 Volts) as the upper limit for the analog input pins.

Power (USB ):

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In order to operate the Arduino or to connect the Arduino with Computer, there is Built-in Power USB port. The Arduino UNO can be power ON using the USB Cable type B, we can make Arduino power on by connecting that USB Cable type B with our computer. This cable is also used to write Arduino programming.

NOTE: The operating range of Arduino is 5v if you exceed the voltage above the 5v the Arduino Uno may damage. In our observation, you can exceed the voltage up to 10-12v but if you will exceed more voltage say 20v then your Arduino Uno board may damage.

Reset Button:

Pin number 10: Every micro-controller have the button called reset button, In the Arduino Uno board pin number 10 is reserved for Reset. Pushing the reset button will temporarily restart stored code that is loaded on the Arduino. This can help when trying a custom program for your project, Let’s say you are trying a project that does not work ok then you modified it just click on upload id and reset the button. Now you can observe your recently uploaded code.

Note: Reset button does not reset the default setting of your Arduino board. it just executes the code form the beginning.

Power LED Indicator:

Just near the UNO has written on your Arduino UNO board there is a yellow LED, which indicated that the Arduino is working whenever you write a program of Arduino and upload that program to Arduino board this led indicates confirming you that your program is successfully uploaded on board.

This is also important Update in Arduino Uno because when you use any communication device like you want to control your LEDs on Bluetooth this LED give you an indication that your command through mobile is reached at Arduino or not. Hell yeah 😀

Transmitter, Receiver Pin:

The pin 0 and 1 are TX and RX respectively. These are the heart of Arduino Uno board, in order to perform serial communication we use these pins. “I must say if you are interested in making project, master on these pins or in serial communication”. Using these two pins you can even control your every household item with your Bluetooth, GSM, and Internet.

This is Internet era and if you master on these pins you can make really good projects.

Heart of Arduino Uno:

Arduino Uno board is useless without that Big black IC. Every Arduino Board has these types of ICs these IC’s are basically, Micro-Controller. Every Arduino Board is different from one another because few Micro-Controller IC’s have more pins and more function few have fewer pins. This all depends on which type of Micro-Controller you are using.
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In Arduino Uno ATmega Micro-Controller IC’s from the ATMEL company is used.
Do you know you can make your own Arduino Uno by using these Micro-Controller ICs. Because all the function you are performing on Arduino Uno is because of this IC.

Voltage Regulator:

The voltage regulator is not the part of you pins it is not used for any connection with your circuit. But it is something that is built in the Arduino UNO board in order to prevent the damages to the board. The voltage regulator from its name its clear that it is used to regulate or maintain the voltage into the Arduino Board.

Think of it as a power guard. It is very useful when you connect voltage above than 5V, it regulates that voltage to the 5v but do not forget every power guard has own limit if you apply more than 20V this guard will not be helpful for your board and the Arduino Uno board will be damaged.

Crystal Oscillator:

Arduino UNO board have 16MHz built in Oscillator, In the Arduino Board crystal of 16 MHz is used as the clock frequency generator. This is the very essential part of because every micro-controller or microprocessor-based system requires a clock frequency.

Like in normal computer or mobile we have – 2.4 or some GHz, which is the clock frequency of microcontroller or microprocessor in that computer or mobile.

The speed of the program execution depends on this oscillator frequency, greater frequency oscillator will make your board faster to perform tasks.

Also Read: How to Interface IR Sensor with Arduino

Installation of Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Board):

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So now you may have a question about How can I Start Learning Arduino Coding? let me tell you about that there is a lot of information on the internet about How to learn Arduino coding but I will tell you here How you can learn professionally and How you can code.

So I will suggest you download this book and read it its simple book with an easy explanation. click here

Arduino Coding

Read this book on the daily basis you will get familiar with the coding and How you can install Software on your computer? and also you can download Arduino IDE. Click here install this software plug in your’s Arduino’s Cable into your PC then select the tools and click on the port then select to COM3 and get started then simply verify your device drivers. for that simply click on upload button as shown below.

arduino micro controller

this is very simple nah? congratz, you have done best now just explore new and amazing features of Arduino Microcontroller If you want to make projects you can make these projects given below.

Simple Arduino Projects:

  1. Led Blinking
  2. Line Following Robot
  3. Arduino Based Calculator
  4. Arduino Based Radar System
  5. Arduino Based Distance Measurement with Ultrasonic Sensor
  6. Object Avoiding Robot
  7. Home Automation Using Arduino
  8. Car Tracking using GSM
  9. GSM Based Solar Tracking
  10. CNC Machine
  11. Robotic Arm
  12. Lego Robots

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and much more Arduino gives you free platform just think and then convert your imagination into reality you can build anything it just depends on your thinking abilities.well, you learned about Arduino now you may be thinking of How much it cost so let me tell you Arduino Microcontroller is a very cheap device you will get Arduino around $3.8.

If you like my blog then share this information with your friends and also comment below if you have any query and if you made projects and want to share then comment below your project and show us your work. stay blessed and stay connected with latest updates 😉  for more visit

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